From the article: “Resource cutbacks are putting an increasing strain on the prison system in England and Wales, with a growing current of deaths, attempted suicides and assaults, according to the chief inspector of prisons.”
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP) has one of the best, if not THE best, prison inspection systems worldwide. It judges custodial facilities against its “healthy prison test,” which has four components: safety, respect, purposeful activities, and resettlement (aka reentry). It also conducts mass surveys of the inmate populations in each facility, which it uses to compare facilities over time and against each other. According to the article, prisoners’ perceptions of safety had significantly worsened in the past year.